Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Research Medicine and Pharmaceuticals: Current Issues and Research Open European Academy of Public Sciences en-US Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Research Diabetes technology at camp: A rich learning environment <p>Over 20,000 children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) attend diabetes camps across the United States and Canada annually (Diabetes Education &amp; Camping Association, 2018). Diabetes self-management technology is rapidly evolving so diabetes camps must adapt to these changes. Approximately 75% of children with T1D that attend camp use technologies such as insulin pumps, automated insulin delivery systems, continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs) and remote monitoring systems (American Diabetes Association [ADA], 2017). Without proper education and first hand use, these devices can be intimidating and complicated for healthcare providers to utilize. Diabetes camp offers an intensive learning environment to allow healthcare providers the opportunity to observe and study these devices and, in turn, come to understand how technology aids T1D management (ADA, 2017).</p> <p><strong>Closed access article is available at a price of 10 Euro.</strong></p> Julia E. Blanchette Cheryl Switzer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 1(5) 9 13 ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ПЕРСПЕКТИВНОСТИ СОЗДАНИЯ НОВЫХ ЛЕКАРСТВЕННЫХ ПРЕПАРАТОВ С ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕМ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ SELF ПУТЕМ МАРКЕТИНГОВОЙ ОЦЕНКИ ПОТРЕБИТЕЛЬСКИХ ПРЕДПОЧТЕНИЙ <p>Самоэмульгирующиеся системы (SELF) представляют большой интерес в сфере дизайна лекарственных форм и пероральных систем доставки лекарственных веществ, которые могут обеспечить высокую растворимость и биодоступность активных фармацевтических субстанций. Целью работы было провести маркетинговое исследование и оценку потребительских предпочтений использования лекарственных препаратов на основе SELF. Согласно полученным данным, лекарственные препараты на основе SELF могут быть востребованы на российском фармацевтическом рынке, что будет способствовать дальнейшему развитию сегмента.</p> <p>Self-emulsifying system (SELF) are of great interest in the field of drug design forms and oral drug delivery systems that can provide high solubility and bioavailability of active pharmaceutical substances. The aim of the work was to conduct a marketing research and assessment of consumer preferences for the use of drugs based on SELF. According to the data obtained, SELF-based drugs can be in demand on the Russian pharmaceutical market, which will contribute to the further development of the segment.</p> Елена Олеговна Бахрушина Людмила Ивановна Бабаскина Екатерина Сергеевна Мазязина Дмитрий Владимирович Бабаскин Иван Иванович Краснюк ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 1(5) 14 23 10.5281/zenodo.2633681 Neuro-psychological features of non-motor disorders in Parkinson's disease <p>Parkinson's disease (PD) - is a chronic progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system, the main clinical manifestations of which are hypokinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, postural disorders, which as the disease progresses grow and eventually lead to immobility of patients [Stok V. N., Fedorova N.V., 1997, Jahno N.N., 1995]. Modern anti parkinson therapy is mainly symptomatic and, apparently, does not affect the current degeneration process. Therefore, even with the optimal treatment today, disability of the patient is inevitable in the future. In addition to classical motor disorders, the cause of disability can be a wide range of non-motor disorders (mental , vegetative , sensory). The core of mental disorders are cognitive impairment who is starting in the early stages of the disease and initially are mild or moderate, but the progression of the disease tend to rise and at a late stage of the disease reach the degree of dementia in nearly 80% of patients [Levin O. C. et al., 2002, Zakharov V.V., Jahno N.N., 2004, Aarsland D. et al., 2003, Eshhe M. et al., 2007]. As the disease progresses cognitive and other mental disorders (affective or psychotic) can come in the clinical picture to the fore, complicating patient care more and more. At the same time the rate of progression of clinical symptoms, both motor and particular non-motor manifestations in PD remains poorly studied, making it difficult to determine prognosis and planning of long-term illness treatment.</p> Solomiia Bandrivska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 1(5) 24 28 10.5281/zenodo.2633689 The association between left main coronary artery calcium and cardiovascular-specific and total mortality: The Coronary Artery Calcium Consortium <p>Background and aims: Left main (LM) coronary artery disease is associated with greater myocardial infarction-related mortality, however, coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring does not account for disease location. We explored whether LM CAC predicts excess mortality in asymptomatic adults. Methods: Cause-specific cardiovascular and all-cause mortality was studied in 28,147 asymptomatic patients with non-zero CAC scores in the CAC Consortium. Multivariate regression was performed to evaluate if the presence and burden of LM CAC predict mortality after adjustment for clinical risk factors and the Agatston CAC score. We further analyzed the per-unit hazard associated with LM CAC in comparison to CAC in other arteries. Results: The study population had mean age of 58.3 ± 10 years and CAC score of 301 ± 631. LM CAC was present in 21.7% of the cases. During 312,398 patient-years of follow-up, 1,907 deaths were observed. LM CAC was associated with an increased burden of clinical risk factors and total CAC, and was independently predictive of increased hazard for all-cause (HR 1.2 [1.1, 1.3]) and cardiovascular disease death (HR 1.3 [1.1, 1.5]). The hazard for death increased proportionate to the percentage of CAC localized to the LM. On a per-100 Agatston unit basis, LM CAC was associated with a 6-9% incremental hazard for death beyond knowledge of CAC in other arteries. Conclusions: The presence and high burden of left main CAC are independently associated with a 20- 30% greater hazard for cardiovascular and total mortality in asymptomatic adults, arguing that LM CAC should be routinely noted in CAC score reports when present.</p> <p><strong>Closed access article is available at a price of 17 Euro.</strong></p> Steven J. Lahti et. al. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 1(5) 29 43 VEGFR2 and OPG genes modify the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia <p>Abstract Background and aims: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The magnitude of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in FH patients is highly variable, and this can result from genetic factors. The aim of our study was to characterize whether polymorphisms in VEGFR2 and OPG genes could influence the expression of ASCVD in FH patients. Methods: We studied 318 FH patients from the SAFEHEART registry, without clinical diagnosis of ASCVD. A coronary tomographic angiography (CTA) was performed to determine and evaluate the presence of coronary stenosis and coronary artery calcium, as measured by coronary calcium score (CCS). Genotyping of OPG rs2073618 and VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphisms was performed using TaqMan 5´-exonuclease allelic discrimination assays. Results: Homozygous GG genotype and G allele of VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphism were associated with decreased risk of developing coronary artery stenosis. In the analysis of the OPG rs2073618 and VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphisms, according to the presence of coronary artery calcium, we found significant differences in both polymorphisms. Homozygous GG genotype and G allele of VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphism were associated with decreased risk of accumulation of coronary artery calcium measured by CCS in CTA. Moreover, being a carrier of the GG genotype and G allele of the OPG rs2073618 polymorphism increased the risk of the presence of coronary artery calcium measured by CCS in CTA. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in VEGFR2 and OPG genes modify the risk of ASCVD in FH patients.</p> José Pablo Miramontes-González et. al. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 1(5) 44 56 ADAM8 in the cardiovascular system: An innocent bystander with clinical use? <p>Several key players in inflammation as well as atherosclerosis development are regulated by proteolysis close to the cell surface in a process called regulated intramembrane proteolysis, leading to ectodomain shedding, mediated by proteases of the A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) family. To date, 12 proteolytically active ADAMs have been identified, one of which is ADAM8 that is characterized by its autocatalytic properties resulting in a soluble form of ADAM8 (sADAM8), in addition to the classical transmembrane bound form1, 2. Several members of the ADAMs family, including ADAM9, 10, 15 and 17, have been shown to be expressed in atherosclerotic plaques in humans and their expression was increased upon lesion development or associated with plaque rupture3-6. Recently, Theodorou et al. also demonstrated expression of ADAM8 in human atherosclerotic lesions, which was associated with foam cells and further increased with plaque progression. However, expression itself does not prove a protein’s contribution to disease development or progression. ADAM10 and ADAM17 were already shown to play a causal role in murine atherosclerosis development. For ADAM17, it has been shown that there are clear and contrasting cell-type specific effects on atherosclerosis formation.</p> Emiel P.C. van der Vorst Marjo M.P.C. Donners ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 1(5) 57 61 Pagophagia in men with iron-deficiency anemia <p>Few case series of pagophagia and iron deficiency include men. We performed a retrospective study of non-Hispanic white men with iron-deficiency anemia whose anemia and pagophagia, thrombocytosis, and thrombocytopenia (if present) resolved after iron replacement. Iron- deficiency anemia was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) &lt;15%, serum ferritin (SF) &lt;30µg/L, and hemoglobin (Hb) &lt;13.0 g/dL. We excluded men with: anemia, thrombocytosis, or thrombocytopenia due to non-iron-deficiency causes; malignancy; chronic inflammatory conditions; hemochromatosis; or creatinine &gt;1.1 mg/dL. We computed univariate and multivariable pagophagia associations with: age; gastrointestinal bleeding; TS; SF; Hb; red blood cell (RBC) count; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); RBC distribution width (RDW); and platelet count. Median age of 41 men was 54 y (range 18-81). Fourteen men (34.1%) had pagophagia. Thirty-six men (87.8%) had gastrointestinal bleeding. Mean Hb was 9.4±2.2 g/dL. Six men (14.6%) had thrombocytosis; two (4.9%) had thrombocytopenia. Logistic regression on pagophagia revealed: age (p=0.0158; odds ratio 0.92 [95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.99]) and platelet count (p=0.0187; 0.98 [0.97, 1.00]) (41.4% of pagophagia occurrence; ANOVA p=0.0053). We conclude that pagophagia occurred in 34% of men with iron-deficiency anemia and was negatively associated with age and platelet count, after adjustment for other variables.</p> <p><strong>Closed access article is available at a price of 17 Euro.</strong></p> James C. Barton et. al. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 1(5) 62 72