Journal of Environmental Pollution http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep Journal of Environmental Pollution en-US LAlexander@scopuseu.com (L. Alexander) office@scopuseu.com (BCN) Thu, 15 Nov 2018 06:02:24 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Phosphate fertilizer industry is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollutants http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/216 <p>Phosphate fertilizer industry is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollutants.<br>Besides solid waste products, e.g. phosphates, sulphates, and heavy metals, also atmospheric<br>pollutants such as hydrofluoric acid fumes (HF), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO2), and<br>particulate matter with diameter up to 10 µm (PM10) can be dangerous. Genotoxic effect of these<br>pollutants was monitored by assessing the DNA damage using alkaline comet assay in brain, thoracic<br>muscles and gut of Aiolopusthalassinus collected at three sites (A­C) located at 1, 3, and 6 km away<br>from Abu­Zaabal Company for Fertilizers and Chemical Industries. Control site was established 32<br>km from the source of pollution, at the Cairo University Campus. The level of the DNA damage was<br>significantly higher in insects from polluted sites comparing to that from the control site. A strong<br>negative correlation between percentage of cells with visible DNA damage (% severed cells) and the<br>distance of the sites from Abu­Zaabal Company was found. The best parameter for monitoring of<br>fertilizer pollutants is % of severed cells. Possible impact of Abu­Zaabal Company (extremely high<br>concentration of phosphates and sulphates in all the polluted sites) on DNA integrity in A. thalassinus<br>tissues was discussed. The potential use of the comet assay as a biomonitoring method of the<br>environmental pollution caused by fertilizer industry was proposed. Specific pollution resulting from<br>the activity of the fertilizer industry can cause comparable adverse effects in the organisms inhabiting<br>areas up to 6 km from the source of contamination.</p> Eman Alaaeldin Abdelfattah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/216 Thu, 15 Nov 2018 05:59:26 +0000 Nanofiltration performances after membrane bioreactor for hospital wastewater treatment: Fouling mechanisms and the quantitative link between stable fluxes and the water matrix http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/215 <p>Treatment combining membrane bioreactors (MBR) and nanofiltration (NF) is becoming an emerging wastewater treatment strategy.<br>The combined process is capable of producing high quality water potentially reusable; however, diverse compositions of MBR<br>effluents induce several types and degrees of NF membrane fouling that impacts process productivity. Moreover, since MBR<br>effluent composition for one type of wastewater source is variable depending on the MBR efficiency at different periods,<br>downstream NF membrane fouling types and degrees may consequently change over time.<br>In that context, the present paper aims at developing effective fouling control strategies of NF membrane in the case of the filtration<br>of MBR effluents taken from a MBR system installed in a French hospital. These effluents were filtrated under various<br>transmembrane pressures, and stable fluxes during these filtrations were determined. Several types and degrees of fouling<br>mechanisms were then identified through surface morphology observation and the analysis of chemical compositions of fouled<br>membranes. The diverse flux behaviour was further associated with the fouling mechanisms and foulant compositions. Based on the<br>study of these mechanisms, the quantitative link between stable fluxes and calcium phosphate concentrations in MBR effluents has<br>been established.</p> Yandi Lan, Karine Groenen-­Serrano, Clémence Coetsier, Christel Causserand ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/215 Thu, 15 Nov 2018 06:00:05 +0000 Successful restoration of a tropical shallow eutrophic lake: Strong bottom­up but weak topdown effects recorded http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/214 <p>Fish manipulation has been used to restore lakes in the temperate zone. Often strong short­term<br>cascading effects have been obtained, but the long term­perspectives are less clear. Fish manipulation<br>methods are far less advanced for warm lakes, and it is debatable whether it is, in fact, possible to<br>create a trophic cascade in warm lakes due to the dominance and high densities of fast­reproducing<br>omnivorous fish. However, removal of benthic feeding fish also reduce disturbance of the sediment,<br>which not only affects the nutrient level but also the concentration of suspended organic and<br>inorganic matter with enhanced water clarity and potentially better growth conditions for submerged<br>macrophytes. We conducted a biomanipulation experiment in one of the basins in Chinese Huizhou<br>West Lake that have remained highly turbid after extensive nutrient loading reduction. Another basin<br>was used as control (control­treatment pairing design). Removal of a substantial amount of planktibenthivorous<br>fish was followed by planting of submerged macrophytes and stocking of piscivorous<br>fish. We found strong and relatively long­lasting effects of the restoration initiative in the form of<br>substantial improvements in water clarity and major reductions in nutrient concentrations,<br>particularly total phosphorus, phytoplankton and turbidity, while only minor effects were detected for<br>crustacean zooplankton grazers occurring in low densities before as well as after the restoration. Our&nbsp;results add importantly to the existing knowledge of restoration of warm lakes and are strongly<br>relevant, not least in Asia where natural lakes frequently are used extensively for fish production,<br>often involving massive stocking of benthivorous fish. With a growing economy and development of<br>more efficient fish production systems, the interest in restoring lakes is increasing world­wide. We<br>found convincing evidence that fish removal and piscivores stocking combined with transplantation<br>of submerged macrophytes may have significant effects on water clarity in warm shallow lakes even<br>if the zooplankton grazing potential remains low, the latter most likely as a result of high predation<br>on the zooplankton.</p> Zhengwen Liu, Jinrun Hu, Ping Zhong ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/214 Thu, 15 Nov 2018 06:00:34 +0000 Application of satellite­based sulfur dioxide observations to support the cleantech sector: Detecting emission reduction from copper smelters http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/213 <p>In this study, we present the result of the application of space­based sulfur dioxide (SO2)<br>observations to evaluate the efficacy of cleantech solutions in reducing air polluting emissions from<br>metal smelting. We analyse the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite­based SO2<br>observations over Tsumeb (Namibia) and Bor (Serbia) copper smelters, where two sulfur­capture<br>plants, designed to transform gaseous SO2 emissions into sulfuric acid, were implemented in 2015.<br>We observe a reduction in the annual SO2 emissions by up to 90% after 2015 at both smelters, as a<br>result of the implementation of the sulfuric acid plants. The OMI­based emission estimates are<br>mostly in line with those reported at facility­level and reproduce the same year­to­year variability.<br>This variability is driven by the changes in the copper production, the sulfur­to­copper ratio and by<br>the technology employed to reduce the SO2 emissions. OMI observations are directly used by the<br>company operating the sulfuric acid plants to confirm the efficacy of the employed technology using<br>independent satellite­based observations.<br>The results demonstrate how satellite­based observations are able to detect relative changes in SO2<br>emissions and can be used to verify and complete existing emission informations. The approach<br>presented here can be applied to other sources on global scale to support cleantech companies as well<br>as decision­makers involved in environmental policies and sustainable development.</p> Iolanda Ialongo, Vitali Fioletov, Chris Mc Linden, Mikael Jåfs, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Johanna Tamminen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/213 Thu, 15 Nov 2018 06:00:56 +0000 Agro­potentiality of dairy industry effluent on the characteristics of Oryza sativa L. (Paddy) http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/212 <p>This research aimed at analyzing the agronomical characteristics of Oryza sativa L. under irrigation<br>with different concentrations of dairy industry effluent such as 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% along with<br>control. The studies revealed that the effluent is rich in some nutrients and altered the agronomical<br>characteristics of Oryza sativa L. and physio­chemical properties of the soil as well. On treatment of<br>soil with various effluent concentrations up to 30 days of harvesting, there was a significant impact<br>on the moisture content, porosity, water holding capacity, bulk density, organic carbon, humus,<br>phosphorous, potassium, calcium, chloride and nitrogen and insignificant effect on temperature, pH,<br>conductivity and salinity. The agronomical parameters such as seed germination, shoot length, root<br>length, total growth of plant, total fresh weight and dry weight of paddy seedlings were recorded to<br>be improved at lower concentrations of effluent i.e. till 50% as compared to control. Moreover, the<br>seedlings irrigated with low concentrations of effluent increased nitrogen and chlorophyll content in<br>plants. Interestingly, the use of dilution containing 50% effluent permitted the growth of superior<br>quality plants during early seedling growth phase. The results suggest that dairy industry effluent can<br>be reused to cultivate paddy, enabling a successful agriculture practice and reducing environmental<br>effects of improper effluent disposal to open land or water resources.</p> Vimaldeep Kaur, Gitanjali Sharma, Chandni Kirpalan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/212 Thu, 15 Nov 2018 06:01:17 +0000 Deep transitions: Theorizing the long­term patterns of socio­technical change http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/211 <p>This viewpoint presents insights on designing, engaging with and researching multi­stakeholder<br>engagement spaces based on the experience of the ARTS project (2014–2016), active in five<br>European cities also relevant for a broader European scale. We argue that those spaces represent an<br>important new instrument of participatory governance that can elucidate the way different actors like<br>community initiatives relate to and employ planning and policy contexts for working towards<br>sustainable urban futures. The multi­stakeholder engagement spaces are analyzed regarding three<br>functions they fulfill: co­creating new knowledge for action, making sense of contemporary<br>transitions, and, exploring how sustainable solutions impact transitions. The lessons learned focus on<br>the roles of different actors within those spaces as well as the link between the multi­stakeholder<br>engagement spaces and a broader local context. We name three caveats including deeply entrenched<br>mistrust between local transition initiatives and local government representatives, existing power<br>imbalances and inclusivity.</p> Laur Kanger, Johan Schot ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/211 Thu, 15 Nov 2018 06:01:38 +0000 Co­producing urban sustainability transitions knowledge with community, policy and science http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/210 <p>This viewpoint presents insights on designing, engaging with and researching multi­stakeholder<br>engagement spaces based on the experience of the ARTS project (2014–2016), active in five<br>European cities also relevant for a broader European scale. We argue that those spaces represent an<br>important new instrument of participatory governance that can elucidate the way different actors like<br>community initiatives relate to and employ planning and policy contexts for working towards<br>sustainable urban futures. The multi­stakeholder engagement spaces are analyzed regarding three<br>functions they fulfill: co­creating new knowledge for action, making sense of contemporary<br>transitions, and, exploring how sustainable solutions impact transitions. The lessons learned focus on<br>the roles of different actors within those spaces as well as the link between the multi­stakeholder<br>engagement spaces and a broader local context. We name three caveats including deeply entrenched<br>mistrust between local transition initiatives and local government representatives, existing power<br>imbalances and inclusivity.</p> Niki Frantzeskaki, Ania Rok ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://scopuseu.com/scopus/index.php/jep/article/view/210 Thu, 15 Nov 2018 06:02:07 +0000