First of all, what exactly is a CD-ROM? Short for 'Compact Disc Read-Only Memory', a CD-ROM looks exactly like an audio CD but contains multimedia files that are programmed to use text, images, audio and video to provide interactivity. CD-ROMs are often included free or at little extra cost with coursebooks and workbooks. CD-ROMs accompanying courses typically have content related to each course unit, providing learners with extra reading and listening materials, recording functionality to practise pronunciation and speaking, and with grammar and vocabulary activities like matching vocabulary to definitions, drag and drop exercises, gap-fills, crosswords, and so on. Starting to make an appearance along with CD-ROMs in the language teaching world are DVDs - short for 'Digital Versatile Disc'- which were developed in the 1990s. These are similar to CD-ROMs in that a variety of data can be stored on them, but they have much greater storage capacity than CD-ROMs. Related to the area of online and computer-based assessment, are electronic portfolios, also called ePortfolios or digital portfolios. A traditional paper-based portfolio is a collection of a learner's work, and an ePortfolio simply means that this work is presented in electronic format, and can thus include various electronic media such as video, audio, blogs or websites, as well as documents. An ePortfolio can showcase a range of the owner's skills, and display achievements not just from formal learning situations, but also from extra-curricular activities or work experience. The portfolio may also include reflections on the learning experience itself.